MMO1971 - 19th Century water meadow south of Barton Wood (Monument)
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Type and Period (1)
- None recorded
A post-medieval water meadow of a type known locally as a catchwork or field-gutter system was constructed on a north-facing combe-side above Barton Wood, centred on circa SS 74724848, Brendon parish. Catchwork systems are usually found on steep combe sides and are designed to irrigate pasture by diverting water from a spring or stream along the valley sides via a series of channels or gutters. When irrigation was required the gutters were blocked, causing water to overflow, thereby irrigating the slopes. This film of water prevented the ground freezing during the winter and raised the temperature of the grass in the spring, thereby encouraging early growth, particularly important during the hungry gap of the March and April. Any excess water then returned to the feeder stream at the valley bottom or was removed by a tail drain. The use of a series of parallel gutters to improve the coverage is commonly seen on Exmoor systems, but this is a simple system with a single gutter or head-main. The source of the water is unclear, but the First Edition Ordnance Survey map, upon which the gutter is marked, indicates that a spring may be hidden within the tree line at circa SS 74794845. It is not apparent from the aerial photographs alone which farm the water meadow is associated with. However, the absence of any visible structures in its vicinity indicates that it is probably a detached water meadow, which distributed only what fertiliser was carried to it. It can be seen operating in April 1972, and the earthwork is still visible on aerial photographs of 1995. [1-5]
- <1> SMO4068 Aerial photograph: Various. Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. RAF CPE/UK/1980 (F20) 4046-7 11-APR-1947.
- <2> SMO4068 Aerial photograph: Various. Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. NMR OS/72065 071 15-APR-1972.
- <3> SMO4068 Aerial photograph: Various. Various. Vertical Aerial Photograph. NMR OS/95026 055-6 12-MAR-1995.
- <4> SEM6703 Map: Ordnance Survey. 1868-1901. County Series; 1st Edition 25 Inch Map. 1:2500. 1889.
- <5> SEM7396 Monograph: Cook, H. + Williamson, T.. 2007. Water Meadows: History, Ecology and Conservation. Windgather Press. 1st Edition. 1-7, 28-9.
- <6> SMO7556 Archive: 2007-2009. Exmoor National Park NMP: SS 74 NW. MD002173.
|Grid reference||Centred SS 7472 4848 (117m by 17m) (Aerial Survey)|
|Civil Parish||BRENDON, NORTH DEVON, DEVON|
Related Monuments/Buildings (0)
Related Events/Activities (0)
External Links (1)
- http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=1465775 (Original Monarch entry: 1465775)
- National Monuments Record reference: SS 74 NW176
- Pastscape HOBID (was Monarch UID): 1465775
Record last edited
May 9 2013 2:13PM
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